Symptoms of HIV/AIDS are caused by the failure of the immune system and the depletion of CD4+ T cells, the primary immune system warrior for infection. As soon as HIV reaches the body, these cells continue to be killed. Any of the typical symptoms include:
- Diarrhea that lasts longer than a week
- Dry cough
- Loss in memory, addiction and psychiatric problems
- Deep, mysterious fatigue
- Quick weight loss
- Recurrent fever or intense night sweats
- Black, dark, pink or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose or eyelid.
- Swollen lymph glands in the armpit, vagina or neck
- White spots or irregular blemishes in the tongue, mouth, or throat
Gastrointestinal Tract infection
Cryptosporidiosis – this is a parasite that can cause chronic diarrhea. Such signs include abdominal cramps, nausea, exhaustion, weight lack, loss of appetite, vomiting, and dehydration.
The infection is difficult to treat, and there is no definite successful cure. The monitoring of symptoms and treatment of HIV is necessary.
Cytomegalovirus – While this virus can impact the body as a whole, it typically occurs in the stomach, causing fever, diarrhea, and stomach pain. It is most possible that CD4+ T cell counts dropped below 50 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.
Mycobacterium Avium Complex – is a bacterial infection that may cause constant fever, night sweats, nausea, weight loss, diarrhea, stomach pain, dizziness, diarrhea and exhaustion. The bacteria that cause this infection are present in water, mud, dirt and bird drops.
This condition is most likely to arise when CD4+T cell counts dip below 50 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Preventive therapy, typically with azithromycin, is given when CD4+ T cells are fewer than 50 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.
Liver diseases in AIDS:
Liver disease is one of the leading causes of death among AIDS patients, especially liver disease caused by hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses. Many medications used to treat HIV and AIDS can cause liver disease or hepatitis. Patients must undergo vaccination and follow-up care to inject with hepatitis.
Tests for HIV and AIDS
Blood tests are the most common way to diagnose humans. Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a virus which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These tests check for antibodies to the virus that is present in the blood of infected individuals. People exposed to the virus should be tested immediately.
Early testing is crucial for HIV. If you have a positive virus test, you and your doctor may develop a treatment plan to help fight HIV and prevent complications. Early testing may also alert you to avoid high-risk behaviour that might spread the virus to others.
As it can take between six weeks and six months to produce antibodies to the virus, follow-up testing may be needed. Your doctor will inform you about your problems, family records and fitness issues and do a physical exam.
The primary tests for diagnosing HIV and AIDs include:
- ELISA Test ELISA, which is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is used to detect HIV infection. If the ELISA test is positive, a Western blot test is typically given to validate the diagnosis. If the ELISA result is negative, but you suspect you might have HIV, you should be screened again within one to three months. ELISA is very susceptible to chronic HIV infection. Still, since antibodies are not developed directly after infection, you might be screened negative for a few weeks to a few months after the illness. Although your test outcome may be harmful during this window, you could be tested negative for a few weeks or months following infection.
- Home Testing The only home test authorised by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is named the Home Access Express Test, which is offered in pharmacies. Home Testing, The only home test, approved by the U.S. The Food and Drug Administration is referred to as the Home Access Express Examination provided in pharmacies.
- Saliva Checks A cotton pad is used to remove saliva from the inside of the cheek. The pillow is put in a tube and sent to the laboratory for examination. Results are available within three days. Useful findings should be checked with a blood test.
- Viral Load Test – This test tests the amount of HIV you have in your blood. It is usually used to track patient progress or to diagnose early HIV infection. Three technologies test HIV viral load in the blood—reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), branched DNA (bDNA) and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay (NASBA). The fundamental concepts for these tests are identical. HIV is identified by DNA sequences that directly bind to those in the virus. It is important to note that the results may vary from one test to another.
- Western Blot This is a susceptible blood test used to confirm a positive ELISA test result.
Extremely active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was initiated in HIV and AIDS in 1996. HAART—often referred to as the anti-HIV cocktail—is a mixture of three or four medications, such as protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral drugs. Treatment is highly successful in slowing down the rate at which HIV replicates itself, which may delay the dissemination of HIV in the body. HAART aims to reduce the amount of virus in your body or viral load to the degree that can no longer be measured by blood tests.
Dr Harsh Shah
Liver, Pancreas & Cancer specialist Doctor in Ahmedabad, India